Y’all probably don’t know this about me, but I love film – like really, really, really love it.
It all began in middle school when I got a taste for filming and editing as the result of numerous school assignments. My childhood best friend Kristen and I made a trailer for the Hunger Games for our middle school English project, and that started what I refer to as the “cinema years.” Whenever we were presented with the opportunity to do something creative for school we seized it and created a video, and our love of cinema went so far that we eventually made films outside of school for our own enjoyment. We would spend hours planning projects and drawing storyboards in a shared journal, and we roped our friends and family in as actors and editors. When I look back on middle school, what first comes to mind are the hours spent editing through the night and the rush of excitement I got when our creations were played in front of the class. That phase extended into high school, and was extremely formative for my identity.
While I haven’t picked up a camera or edited a short film in what feels like ages, I still hold the art close to my heart. Whenever I watch something new I apply my critical eye for cinematography and symbolism that I developed by minoring in Film Studies at FSU, and I get a lot of enjoyment from discussing movies with that in mind. That being said, I want to apologize in advance for inevitably rambling when I write about my favorite movies; my brain has grown accustomed to writing long winded essays on movies and it’s hard to deviate from that style of writing.
All of this is to say that I really fricken love film, and I thought it would be fun to share some of my favorite movies with y’all. I figured now would be the perfect time to dole out movie recommendations what with all of the quarantines in place due to COVID-19 – so if you suddenly have a bunch of time on your hands then hopefully this blog post will help you find ways to kill it!
My Favorite Films
Isle of Dogs // Directed by Wes Anderson (2018)
I’m not a huge fan of Wes Anderson films. The creative side in me can appreciate his use of symmetry and color correcting, but as far as his stories go I’ve never felt completely drawn in. When Isle of Dogs first came out I didn’t feel a strong desire to go out and watch it, so it wasn’t until last winter during the flight to Ireland that I decided to give it a try – mainly because there weren’t many alternatives. I loved the movie so much that I knew I had to own it on DVD. Isle of Dogs is a stop-motion animated movie that is reminiscent of Anderson’s Fantastic Mr. Fox, only this time the story is strongly influenced by Japanese cinema and involves lots and lots of dogs. Isle of Dogs takes place in Megasaki, a city in Japan that has banned dogs due to a rampant outbreak of the dog flu, and follows 12 year old Atari as he attempts to reunite with his dog on Trash Island. The imagery alone is reason enough to fall in love with this film – so much detail was put into each dog that they all have unique personalities and quirks, the backdrops are wonderfully complex, and the intricate transition scenes help to develop the world Wes Anderson has created.
The majority of the voice acting was done in Japanese, but rather than simply defaulting to subtitles for the entire movie, Anderson finds creative ways to keep English-speaking viewers in the loop; sometimes a news reporter does the translating, other times a foreign exchange student will fill us in. As an English-speaker living within Western society, I was at first frustrated with my inability to understand the humans in the film, but after reflecting on it I was able to appreciate Anderson’s use of symbolism to further solidify the audience’s point-of-view with the dogs. Like most films made in this day and age, Isle of Dogs is not without its faults. Some people view the imagery and lack of subtitles as cultural appropriation, while others catch glimpses of the “white savior” complex in the character Tracy. Diving into those topics requires a whole different conversation (shoot me an email if you want to get into it), but all in all I can’t help but love this movie.
Gone Girl // Directed by David Fincher (2014)
Gone Girl was one of the first movies that I watched after I decided to study the mechanics of film creation. The story follows Nick Dunne as he searches for his missing wife, Amy Dunne, and fights accusations that he played a role in her disappearance. The dramatic twists and turns that ensue as the story unfolds keeps the audience on the edge of their seat throughout the entire film, and constantly forces you to challenge your perception of the characters. This movie is entertaining enough even if you don’t have a mind for film, but watching it with a critical eye means you’ll pick up on so much more than the average viewer in regards to why this is a phenomenal film. Gone Girl is rich with symbolism, references to other media, and dark themes that will make you want to return to the film again and again in order to pick up on something you might have missed before.
One of my favorite parts about this movie is the monologue that Amy has towards how women are viewed in society and what makes a woman desirable. If you can get past how awfully pretentious the couple is during the beginning of the movie, you’ll be rewarded with a chilling story that gives a haunting insight into the modern marriage, gender roles, and misogyny. After watching Gone Girl I was inspired to read Gillian Flynn’s book of the same title, and even though I knew how everything ended I was still shocked by the major plot twist when I read it on paper. Whether you read the story or watch it on a screen, it will not disappoint.
Into the Wild // Directed by Sean Penn (2007)
I have been so deeply enamored with Into the Wild ever since I first watched it a few years after it came out. Since that first fateful viewing, Into the Wild has become the stereotypical inspirational film for every dirtbag and outdoorsy-person from my generation, but even so I can’t help but call it one of my favorites. The film tells the true story of Christopher McCandless, a young man who burned all of his money and donated his belongings after graduating college and set off towards Alaska in order to live in the wilderness. Inspired by the research Jon Krakauer did for his book about McCandless, the film follows his journey to Alaska and his transformation into his pseudonym Alexander Supertramp.
When I first watched this movie, I fell in love with Supertramp’s unabashed desire to be outside and live a simpler life, no matter the cost. There’s something so intoxicating about the idea of turning down the pleasures of society so one can live their truest life. When I watched Into the Wild again as an adult, I could empathize with my parent’s remarks that he threw his life away and deeply hurt the people around him, specifically his parents, by abandoning them. Now I view the film from some kind of middle ground, aware of the ramifications of Supertramp’s actions but vaguely proud of him for doing them anyway.
From a purely cinematic perspective, Sean Penn was able to create a masterpiece by 2007 standards. The wide open shots of dramatic landscapes inspire adventure within the audience, while the symbolism and character development remind us that there is a human element to this story, and that they rarely get happy endings. Eddie Vedder of the band Pearl Jam wrote an album specifically to be used as the film’s soundtrack, which goes to show just how much effort and care was put into meticulously crafting a full movie experience.
Baby Driver // Directed by Edgar Wright (2017)
Have you ever listened to music while doing mundane everyday tasks and gotten an odd satisfaction when the beat matches up with your actions? Well Baby Driver is the movie equivalent of that feeling. Almost every step, shot, glance, and turn of the steering wheel is perfectly in sync with the music pumping through Baby’s headphones. As the getaway driver for a ring of bank robbers, Baby, played by Ansel Elgort, has never had to do much more than drive, which he’s remarkably good at. Once he is forced by his boss to stay in the business even after he’s paid back what he owed him, Baby suddenly finds himself bearing witness to and taking part in the horrible acts that, up until then, he was able to ignore by staying in the car. When the safety of his foster father and the beautiful waitress Debora is on the line, Baby comes face to face with the harsh reality that the criminal business is a hard one to get out of.
What makes Baby Driver so good is the music that permeates every aspect of the movie. In one of the first scenes Baby strolls through town while dancing along to a classic song, the lyrics of which are often spray painted on the wall as he passes or plastered on a pole in the form of a poster or sign. Even the conversations fade to the background at times in order to let the soundtrack take the spotlight – often conveying more than words might have. As the movie comes to a close the action speeds up, and there were several times when I thought it was over and had resigned to dislike the ending, only to find out that there was more to the plot. The last scene was pretty satisfying, and was the icing on the cake of an already entertaining film.
It // Directed by Andy Muschietti (2017)
I’m not a huge scary movie fan, yet I somehow found myself in the theater watching It twice in the span of one week, peering through my hands during the scary parts while thoroughly enjoying the movie nonetheless. This chilling adaptation of Stephen King’s novel is infinitely better than the 1990 version due to the stunning cinematography, horrifying CGI, and the heart-warming story with child actors so good they make you want to stick it out for the remainder of the film. It follows a group of friends as they search for one of the member’s missing brother, and as they get closer to finding him they fight off assaults from a child-eating demon clown named Pennywise.
The scenes that are evocative of Stranger Things are the ones that stuck with me the most, as soon as I was able to stop thinking about the nightmarish Pennywise; scenes that focused on the day-to-day lives of the misfit group of children and displayed how they banded together and bonded through their shared torment. Watching the kids ride their bikes around the town of Derry while sharing witty banter was enough to bring me back to this film again and again, and the story is so well executed that I truly believe that if you closed your eyes during each scene with Pennywise you would still enjoy the film. While the scary parts of the movie weren’t my favorite, I can still appreciate how subtle and effectively the psychological horror comes across. It is truly a movie that will make you laugh, cry, and walk away scared shitless.
The sequel to this movie came out in the fall of 2019, and while I’m excited to revisit the twisted town of Derry and the characters that I came to love in the first film, I’m not sure if I’ll enjoy the second one quite as much (which is the main reason I still haven’t seen it yet). It Chapter Two takes place thirty years after the original It, which means the endearing scenes of kids just being kids will be replaced by adults just being adults, and at the end of the day that isn’t nearly as charming. Even so, I know I’ll be hiding behind my hands again during the sequel and I’ll probably enjoy it nonetheless.
Napoleon Dynamite // Directed by Jared Hess (2004)
Napoleon Dynamite is cult classic for every human in my generation. I vividly remember watching it for the first time as a young girl with my family: we sat in almost utter silence for the entire hour and thirty minutes without so much as a chuckle, and at the end we contemplated why on Earth we wasted our time watching something so stupid. Because let’s face it, Napoleon Dynamite is a pretty stupid movie. Fortunately for Jared Hess, though, the stupidity is what keeps bringing people back again and again, and is one of the reasons that this movie is so ridiculously popular. While my family and I were thoroughly confused the first time we watched Napoleon Dynamite, we laughed our heads off the second go around and now consider it a family favorite.
The movie is about the daily life of a high schooler named Napoleon Dynamite. Napoleon isn’t a popular guy in Preston, Idaho, but he isn’t trying to be, and his dry wit and passive indifference to the world make him an easy target for bullies and ridicule. Napoleon is content to stick to himself as he doodles his way through school and indulges his fantasies of mythical creatures, but when Pedro moves to town the two outsiders strike up a friendship. The plot then focuses on Pedro’s campaign for class president and the antics that the two boys get into.
What makes Napoleon Dynamite such a great movie are the characters. Everyone is realistic to the degree that you could imagine meeting them in your own hometown, yet outlandish and quirky enough to be completely original. While most of the characters are awkward, cringe-worthy, and even downright lame at times they are always confident enough to avoid being pitied by the audience, and for the most part they’re genuinely happy with their lot in life. By the end of the movie we’re all rooting for the underdogs and the losers, and are vowing to learn Napoleon’s dance to “Canned Heat”. Give this lighthearted movie a try, and trust me when I say it’s worth the awkwardness.
10 Cloverfield Lane // Directed by Dan Trachtenberg (2016)
10 Cloverfield Lane is a pretty fitting movie to watch during COVID-19 quarantines: it’s about three people hiding out from the apocalypse in an underground bunker. Instead of corona virus, though, they’re protecting themselves from a mysterious force that has taken over the planet. If you haven’t seen Cloverfield (like I hadn’t before watching this sequel) then you’ll be left wondering what could possibly be so dangerous that it keeps the main characters sheltered in their tense subterranean home, and in my opinion the constant wondering only adds to the watching experience.
The main character of 10 Cloverfield Lane is Michelle, a young woman who was in an almost fatal car accident right before the mysterious catastrophe happens. When Michelle regains consciousness she finds herself chained to a pipe in a locked room. We learn that an older farmer named Howard is hiding out in a stocked bunker on his property with a man named Emmett and after witnessing the accident he dragged the wounded Michelle to his sanctuary before locking the door for good. There’s a strange evil that prevents them from going outside, forcing the three strangers to adjust to life in close proximity underground. Howard’s darker side is brought to light as the movie goes on, and the other two characters are forced to consider if the unknown danger of the outside world is preferable to the comfortable prison that they’re found themselves in.
10 Cloverfield Lane is extremely eery, tense, and anxiety inducing, and the ending caught me completely off guard (which is to be expected considering I never watched the first movie.) I love this movie because of the juxtaposition between the cheery music and comforting set with the uncomfortable interactions between Howard and his bunkmates.
Sing Street // Directed by John Carney (2016)
John introduced me to Sing Street over a year ago, and for a few months after we first watched it we were singing the songs nonstop. This movie is probably my favorite “musical” and to this day the music still makes me smile. Sing Street is about a young boy named Conor who lives in Dublin in the 1980s and starts a band with his school friends. What started as a ploy to impress a girl becomes so much more: it’s a way for them to escape struggles at school, harsh family differences, and the creeping recession. The band starts to have a blatant influence on Conor’s personality, which is evident through his hair and clothing choices that align with the type of music they are playing at the moment. The colorful outfits and bold makeup are extremely reminiscent of the 80s, which I absolutely love.
The lighthearted and fun soundtrack to Sing Street contradicts with the issues that the characters struggle with throughout the movie, making it easy for John Carney to address larger problems, such as bullying. I wasn’t a huge fan of the way Sing Street ended, but I still thoroughly enjoyed the movie and am always down to sing along to the songs.
Yes Man // Directed by Peyton Reed (2008)
Yes Man has been one of my favorite movies for as long as I can remember, and is guaranteed to make me hysterically laugh out loud even to this day. Jim Carrey plays Carl, a pessimistic bank loan officer who is dead set on saying “no” to every opportunity life presents him with. One day Carl happens upon a self-help seminar praising the power of the word “yes,” and he ends up entering into a pact to transform himself into a “yes man.” When Carl welcomes “yes” into his life it instantly starts changing for the better: he starts to excel at his job, gets closer to his friends, and falls for a charming girl named Allison (played by Zoey Deschanel).
In typical Jim Carrey and Zoey Deschanel fashion the simple plot of the movie is presented in a way that is hilarious and quirky, and I genuinely crack up every time I watch it. As silly as Yes Man is, the theme of keeping yourself open to new experiences deeply resonates with me and is one of the reasons I keep returning to the movie. Sometimes you just need a good laugh and a reminder to chase after opportunities, and Yes Man delivers just that.
Interstellar // Directed by Christopher Nolan (2014)
I remember walking away from the theater with a lot of questions the first time I watched Interstellar. I was confused by what I had just witnessed, and I struggled to put together the pieces that took the characters from the brink of the end of the world all the way to a happy ending. After rewatching the movie, however, I was struck by the beauty and the simplicity of it. Interstellar is the story about love. We are introduced to the main characters at the beginning of the end of life on Earth – the Cooper family, like many others, are farmers who are struggling to produce enough food to meet the demand of the whittled down population. Matthew McConaughey plays Joseph Cooper (or Coop) who was an engineer and a NASA pilot before the blight and the dust storms came. Corn is the only thing that will grow in 2067, but that too is starting to fall victim to the blight.
Coop also lives with his father-in-law and his son, but it’s his young daughter Murphy that he’s closest with. When the two of them discover that NASA is still running and is secretly trying to find a viable replacement planet, Coop is asked to leave his family behind and join the expedition to scope out the options. The movie follows the crew as they travel through a wormhole to another galaxy, where they track down members of an earlier expedition in the hopes that one of them found a planet that would sustain life. It isn’t until the end of the movie that the science starts to get hazy and viewers are asked to suspend their disbelief. Interstellar follows the footsteps of most other sci-fi movies, specifically 2001: A Space Odyssey, by introducing another dimension and higher beings. Even though I was initially scratching my head the first time I watched it, I truly believe that Interstellar does a great job of introducing rationality to such irrational concepts in a way that makes them believable.
In case you haven’t picked up on it by now, I’m a sucker for movies with wide-shots of dramatic landscapes, stunning scores, and beautiful visuals, and Interstellar delivers all that and more. In addition to all that Nolan managed to tie up all of the loose ends that appeared at the beginning of the movie and connect everything by the end. I absolutely loved rewatching the movie because I was able to pick up on things early on that went a long way towards adding clarity to the complicated ending.
A Beautiful Mind // Directed by Ron Howard (2001)
My initial enjoyment of A Beautiful Mind was in large part due to the fact that I didn’t anticipate the twists and turns that take place in the story. For that reason, I’ll try not to go too much into the plot in the hopes that I won’t give anything away.
A Beautiful Mind is a beautiful movie (albeit a very long one). It tells the story of John Nash, a mathematical genius who attends Princeton university and is searching for a completely original idea to jumpstart his career. John is an odd man who is far better with numbers than he is with people, yet he manages to make a few strong connections with a small group of his peers and with his boisterous roommate Charles Herman. John eventually finds his “one original idea” during his time at Princeton – despite never attending a single class – and is heralded as one of the brightest minds in mathematics, allowing him to easily get an appointment at MIT. After completing an assignment from the Pentagon to decipher encrypted communications, John starts working with the United States Department of Defense and helps them track the location of a Soviet bomb by decoding magazine publications.
While some people might dislike the fact that the plot of A Beautiful Mind is slow compared to most movies that come out today, I for one really love how carefully the movie comes together. The delicate construction of John’s character and the gradual progression of the story create the impression of a real life unfolding; contrary to modern films where major plot points fall into place relatively quickly and the action never slows down, the slowness and the length of A Beautiful Mind allow us to settle in and experience life with John. This in turn makes it easy to get deeply attached to the characters and the story; I couldn’t help but tear up during the scene when an older John drinks tea in the Princeton faculty club.
In addition to the comfortably slow plot, Ron Howard has also crafted a cinematic style that has hints of film noir in it – his use of shadows and the contradictions between light and dark at times reminded me of classic moody movies. I also love the overwhelming warm tones throughout the film that make the entire movie reminiscent of golden hour. One shot in particular that stands out in my mind is when John replicates the pattern on his friend’s tie by playing with the reflection of a glass on a plate of oranges (you’ll have to watch it to understand what I mean).
John’s story is truly remarkable, and the fact that A Beautiful Mind is based on true events and a real person is a little difficult to believe after watching the entire thing. While not every scenario and person is completely accurate, reviews state that the spirit of the movie is spot on to the real John Nash’s life. After rewatching the movie during quarantine I feel inspired to read the book by Sylvia Nasar of the same title that offers a more accurate portrayal of John and his story.
Knives Out // Directed by Rian Johnson (2019)
Knives Out is the most recent release on this list, and is the last movie that I saw in theaters (shoutout to my parents visiting me in Utah and paying for the tickets). It tells the story of an investigation over the death of Harlan Thrombey, a well off novelist who made his fortune writing mysteries, only to end up at the center of one when he ends up dead in his mansion in what appears to be a suicide. Renowned detective Benoit Blanc suspects foul play from Harlan’s eccentric and dysfunctional family members, all of whom are eager to read the will and find out how Harlan’s massive fortune is distributed. Knives Out is a classic murder mystery whodunit, with odd characters, elaborate sets, and a plot that twists and turns throughout the movie.
What makes this film so unique is how modern it is: instead of having a sly detective who smokes a pipe and wears a bowler hat, there’s a teenager who trolls the internet as a member of the alt-right and a middle aged Instagram influencer. Rian Johnson makes a lot of nods to modern class disparities and social statuses that in turn make Knives Out relevant in the 21st century. Knives Out is also different than most murder mysteries because it isn’t overly dramatic or moody. Instead, it’s lighthearted and witty, and even downright funny at times.
Almost Famous // Directed by Cameron Crowe (2000)
Almost Famous is a touching coming of age film that takes place in the 70s during the rock-n-roll revolution. It follows the fifteen-year-old William Miller, who writes freelance articles in the hopes that he’ll become a rock journalist like his hero, Lester Bangs. For one of his assignments he sneaks backstage at a Black Sabbath concert with the help of female band-aids (a word for groupies who are in it for the music, not the sex), the leader of which is the mysterious Penny Lane, and is introduced to the up and coming band Stillwater. His article is good enough to get him hired by Rolling Stone, largely due to the fact that the editor believes Will is much older than he actually is. In an effort to get his article on the cover of the magazine, William goes on tour with Stillwater as they rise to stardom and bears witness to the secret behind-the-scenes life of a rock band.
Over the course of the movie Will goes from an innocent teenager, uncertain about his place in the world, to a slightly less innocent teenager with the kind of confidence that only comes from experiencing life on the road. He falls in love with Penny and fosters a companionship with the band members that extends beyond his wide-eyed idolization, and eventually writes the article that makes the cover of Rolling Stone, but not without first experiencing heartbreak, loss of trust, and a near death experience. William learns firsthand how hard it can be to come face-to-face with your heroes, but his kindness and youthful trust ends up rubbing off on the members of Stillwater and compels them to stay true to themselves instead of falling into the soul-crushing blackhole that is celebrity.
Almost Famous is loosely based on Cameron Crowe’s own experiences as a young rock journalist, and it shines a spotlight on how ruthless and predatory the world of rock-n-roll can be and, more importantly, actually was during the early 70s. Stillwater’s tour wasn’t without infidelity, drugs, and blowups between band members, but at the end of the day the entire cast – from William to the band to the band-aids who were taken advantage of throughout the movie – is reminded that they went into the industry in the first place for the music, and their shared love of the music is what keeps them grounded. Almost Famous is a love letter to music that all of us can relate to to some degree, because even if it isn’t rock and roll, we can all think of a sound that we love so much we would do anything for it.
Scott Pilgrim Vs. The World // Directed by Edgar Wright (2010)
Scott Pilgrim Vs. The World is probably one of the wittiest movies I’ve ever seen; the quick humor and endless references are so abundant that it took several viewings for me to catch them all. Scott Pilgrim, played by the quirky and sometimes painfully awkward Michael Cera, is a bassist for a local Toronto garage-band with a reputation for being a lady killer. When he crosses paths with Ramona Flowers after meeting her in a dream, she immediately becomes his latest obsession. Being with Ramona has a catch though: they can only date if Scott battles and defeats her seven evil exes.
The amount of thought and effort put into this movie is glaringly obvious, and is one of the reasons I love it so much. Each element of the film is intentional: every camera pan and scene transition is done in a way that is perpetually moving the plot forward, so that you feel like the action never truly slows down; the music, color grading, and shot style changes throughout the movie in order to pay homage to different eras of video games and television; even the outfits and the hair colors are symbolically significant. One of my favorite scenes is when Scott’s ex-girlfriend Knives Chau is punched so hard that the blue highlights come off of her hair and are splattered on the wall behind her – and that’s not even a significant scene! The fact that so much work was put into every single second of Scott Pilgrim Vs. The World makes the movie as a whole so much more enjoyable.
If you’re in the mood for a star-studded film (Anna Kendrick, Chris Evans, Aubrey Plaza, Bill Hader, Brie Larson, and more) that will keep you smiling from the very first scene to the very last, then you’ll want to check this one out. Oh, and be sure to turn on the subtitles so you don’t miss a single line.
The Shawshank Redemption // Directed by Frank Darabont (1994)
I somehow managed to live on this Earth for 22 years without seeing this cult classic film, yet as soon as I watched The Shawshank Redemption I knew it earned a spot on my favorites list. Andy Dufresne is sentenced to serve two lifetimes at the Shawshank State Penitentiary for the murder of his wife and her lover, a crime that only he knows he didn’t commit. While at the prison he befriends Red, played by Morgan Freeman, and falls in with a group of likable convicts. Dufresne spends 19 years at Shawshank before making his escape, and in that time he advocates for better living conditions for himself and his fellow inmates, befriends the warden, and finds joy and friendship within the prison walls.
What makes The Shawshank Redemption such a powerful film is the commentary it makes on the unjustness of the justice system, and how difficult life can be for ex-convicts who had spent the majority of their life behind bars. Pair that with the touching friendship between Dufresne and Red, and you end up with a prison film that is deeply moving. If you’re like me and have somehow made it this far in life without watching The Shawshank Redemption, then stop what you’re doing and get it done!
Legally Blonde // Directed by Robert Luketic (2001)
“You got into Harvard law school?”
“What, like it’s hard?”
Legally Blonde is a whole mood. The movie is a perfect representation of the early 2000’s – the outfits, the references, the editing, the music, it all puts you right back to a time when people had bedazzled flip phones and we all drew the letter “s” by starting with six lines (if you know, you know). I was just a young kid during that era, but I can still appreciate the overwhelming feeling of nostalgia that washes over me when I watch Reese Witherspoon tote around her dog in a purse while wearing flare jeans and a tube top.
Elle Woods, played by Reese, decides to study law at Harvard as part of a scheme to get back together with her college ex-boyfriend Warner. Elle has floated through college as a pretty blonde with well off parents, and is accustomed to getting things the easy way. When she arrives at Harvard Law School she quickly learns that her classes require more effort than the ones she took for fashion merchandising at UCLA. What I love so much about Legally Blonde, besides the iconic outfits, is the fact that the happy ending for Elle doesn’t just involve getting the boy back – she also becomes friends with the female antagonist, graduates at the top of her class, gained confidence, and found meaningful relationships, all while staying true to herself. If that isn’t an all around win then I don’t know what is.
What are your favorite films? Let me know in the comments, or shoot me an email at firstname.lastname@example.org. All photos in this post were taken by me unless otherwise specified in the caption.